Anisindione is a derivative of indanedione, and a man made anticoagulant, which is known for preventing the formation of active procoagulation factors IIX, IX, VII, and II, in addition to the anticoagulant protein S and protein C, in the liver by slowing down the gamma carboxylation process of vitamin K of precursor proteins. The regeneration of reduced vitamin K is blocked by oral anticoagulants which in turn develop a stage of deficiency of vitamin K. The reductase’s inhibition mechanism by the drugs is still not known.
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Additionally, there are reductases which are less sensitive to these anticoagulant drugs, however act solely at comparatively high concentrations of vitamin K oxidized in nature. This property might explain that sufficient vitamin K can neutralize significant doses of oral anticoagulants. Anisindione, similar to phenindione, follows its therapeutic action through the reduction of prothrombin activities in the blood. The chemical has no direct effect and also doesn’t reverse tissue damage. However, it may reduce the frequency of extension of existing thrombi as well as avoid thromboembolic complications.
As an anticoagulant, anisindione is used for anticoagulant or antithrombotic drugs which aid in reducing thrombus formation. Different types of antithrombotics impact various processes of blood clotting such as thrombolytic, anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs. The primary purpose of these drugs is to cure the body’s abnormal blood. Despite the drugs are broadly used for curing and preventing arterial and venous thrombosis, the disease still accounts for major deaths every year on a global scale, which further indicates towards the fact that the present drugs in the market are not credible enough to fight against this disease.
Owing to this, there is huge growth potential for anticoagulant drugs, which in turn would boost the demand for anisindione over the next few years. Primary causes of thrombosis include smoking, obesity, pregnancy, medical and genetic conditions, blood vessel damage, and inactivity among others. Owing to rising population on a global scale, demand for these anticoagulant drugs is expected to escalate within the next few years. In emerging regions such as Asia Pacific, demand for such drugs is likely to increase significantly owing to rapidly increasing population in emerging economies such as India and China.
Anisindione is also used in protein hydrolysis. The global industry for protein hydrolysis enzymes is growing at a rapid pace, primarily due to the increasing adoption of protease enzymes in the light of different advantages they represent. Protease is used in the industry due to its protein peptide hydrolysis into amino acids. Emerging economies such as India is one of the primary markets for protease enzymes, rising at a faster rate than other countries. Several primary growth factors such as modification and advancement of properties in food proteins coupled with the reduction in feed costs for protein hydrolysis enzymes are anticipated to fuel the demand for these enzymes over the next few years.
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Other factors such as rising consumption of protease enzymes in reducing phosphorus pollution as well as reducing nitrogen content is also anticipated to contribute toward the growth of the market. However, factors such as limited number of applications of these enzymes in food applications and rising consumption of chemicals as a substitute is expected to hamper the growth of the market.
North America was the largest consumer for protein hydrolysis enzymes with the presence of the large cleaning & detergent industry in the region. However, emerging regions such as Asia Pacific show significant unexplored opportunities for the growth of the market. Consumers are exploring new convenient products with the modernization of the cleaning & detergent industry in this region. Aimpow, Santacruz Biotechnology, and TORONTO RESEARCH CHEMICALS INC. are some of the key companies involved in the anisindione market.